Architecture has its relevance and prevalence from ancient times. Human development has a lot of correlation with the history of architecture too. Many civilizations, cultures and religions have influenced the development of architecture. The history of architecture can be dated back to the Neolithic period which was around 10,000 – 2000 BC. Let us now see how architecture was developed over the ages.
|Basis of development of Architecture|
|Indian History of Architecture|
– Ancient Buddhist
-Other ancient Asian Architecture Styles
Western Influence on Architecture
– Mesopotamian Civilization
– Egyptian Civilization
– Greek Civilization
– Roman Civilization
– Byzantine Architecture
– Medieval Architecture
– Architecture during the Renaissance period
– Baroque Architecture
– Art Nouveau
– Modern Architecture
– Contemporary Architecture
|Influence of Technology on Architecture|
Basis of development of Architecture
The development of humans as a society also paved the way for the development of architecture. As humans were developing their intelligence and starting to gain interest in various art forms, a love for architecture was also formed. Though the architecture in the earlier stages was so primitive, like building a hut house to live in, those smaller interests gained importance as the humans evolved more. From primitive architectural plans, humans went on to plan towns, palaces, monuments, etc. in various civilizations. The ancient people believed a lot in the afterlife. Most of the architectural monuments were dedicated to the afterlife, such as the tombs. It is undeniable that religion and culture have influenced the history of architecture in many ways. In India, we can see the influence of the Hindu religion in the architecture of temples, whereas in European nations, we can see the influence of Christianity. Each country and region has its own influence on the history of architecture.
Indian History of Architecture
Ancient Indian history of architecture can be dated back to the Harappan Civilization. This is also famously known as the Indus Valley Civilization. Town planning was an important part of this civilization. Remains of these civilizations have also been explored which became proof that the Indus Valley Civilization has one of the most ancient architectural designs in the world.
Asian Architecture is influenced by various religions and dynasties such as:
This is a religious architectural type prevalent in China, Japan and India. Stupas, Viharahas, and Chaitiya Grihas are the major parts of this architecture. Many kings have helped Buddhist architecture to develop. A well-known emperor was the King Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire.
Other ancient architectural styles include Dravidian, Maru Guajara, Himalayan and Ancient Hindu architectural styles. Various kings, kingdoms and dynasties have also influenced the architecture in the Asian regions.
Western Influence on Architecture
The western Influence on architecture can also be dated back to the Neolithic age. Let us now see various western architectural developments.
Like the Harappan Civilization, Mesopotamian Civilization is also the oldest. The Ziggurat and the Hanging Gardens are famous architectural structures in Mesopotamia.
Egyptian civilization was famous for building pyramids and tombs. Pyramids are also found in the Mayan and Mesoamerican civilizations.
The architectural style developed in Greece reflected democracy and was devoted to the people. They built public spaces that are famously known as Agora. Greeks used Columns and Canopies in their Temple architecture.
The Romans captured the Greek civilization and brought many changes in the architectural style. Romans concentrated on architectural forms such as the arch, arcades, aqueducts, triumphal gates, etc. They were the ones to use Concrete in their construction.
Roman architecture evolved to form Byzantine Architecture. Byzantine architecture further developed the domes by raising them on piers using pendentives. This is famously known as the Ottoman empire architecture which started reflecting the Islamic sensibility.
Medieval architecture was a dark period as those times were influenced by wars. Medieval architecture mastered the construction of arches and vaults. Some architectural forms that were famous during the medieval period are Pre-Romanesque, Romanesque and Gothic architecture.
Architecture during the Renaissance period
The renaissance period is an advancement in architectural styles where symmetry, proportions and mathematics were widely applied in architecture. Facades, pillars, and pilasters were constructed focussing on interior spatial organization. The famous architects of this period were Flippo Brunelleschi, Michelozzo Michelozzi and Leon Batista Albert.
Baroque architecture was prevalent after Renaissance in the 17th century across Europe. The symmetry and rules followed during the Renaissance period were not followed in the Baroque architectural time. These architectural forms are famously seen in Rome.
Some of the old forms of architectural styles were revived during this period such as Romanesque revival, Gothic revival and American Neo-Classicism/ Federal Style Architecture.
A new style emerged as an influence of the Industrial Revolution which made the mass production of iron. With more supply of iron, the architectural styles also changed.
Art Nouveau led to Modern Architecture which was the era of skyscrapers. The functionalism and purified architectural forms reached all over the world.
The architectural style present now is contemporary architecture. Technological developments and computers have influenced contemporary architecture a lot. The world is now moving towards more sustainable architectural designs which are the need of the hour.
Influence of Technology on Architecture
Many types of technologies all these years have also influenced architectural styles. Some examples are civil engineering, urbanisation, landscape architecture, the use of iron, granites, marbles, concrete, glass, etc. Now the architectural designs are much influenced by software via which the architectural designs are made.
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